Monthly Archives: August 2014

Outstanding: The Most Excellent Drama GCSE

It is often remarked upon that examining the arts can only be subjective. I thought I would explore that by looking at the assessment criteria for Edexcel GCSE Drama.

The GCSE is split into three units. Units one and two involve ‘practical exploration’ lessons and written coursework, unit three is a performance that is marked entirely in most cases by one visiting examiner. Units one and two are marked by the teacher and overseen by the exam board who moderate the teachers marking by looking at her schemes of work, her justifications for the marks she has awarded, a couple of videos of some of the work covered and a sample of the pieces of ‘documentary evidence’. Unit three counts as 40% and is ‘the exam’ and unit one and two add up to 60%.

The teacher decides on what themes and texts to study and also what is covered in the lessons. There is not a universal standard of difficulty. Some candidates will be challenged more than others depending on their teacher. The teacher teaches the lesson at the same time as marking it. Video evidence though called for is often difficult to use for assessment purposes, if you can imagine thirty children all ‘responding’ in different ways some very close to the camera, some out of shot and some very far away. Inevitably there will be moments when one pupils torso obscures the camera’a view of the rest of the cohort and as for picking up what is being said all the time, forget it. The practical exploration for unit one and two will take place over twelve hours and most teachers will video all of this and send off the ‘best’ two one hour videos that they can. This then is entirely subjective, it depends so much on what the teacher does and how good she is at teaching and marking at the same time. The moderation process looks at the teacher’s written evidence of what went on and uses spurious video evidence on which to judge the teacher’s marks. The teacher also comments on what is seen on the video. The moderator is therefore looking at what the teacher says in light of the video. The teacher will be using the mark scheme in order to inform what she writes.

The mark scheme at the ‘top’ end, in other words depending on how the grades fall each year this can be anything from an A* to a C is this:

Unit One:

33-40 Practical Exploration

There is an outstanding understanding of the dramatic potential of the theme/topic/issue. There is an in-depth response to the use of strategies, elements and medium and a creative and collaborative involvement in all practical tasks which are committed and focused. Communication of ideas demonstrates an outstanding creative and imaginative facility that clearly benefits both the student and the work of others.

25-32 

There is an excellent understanding of the dramatic potential of the theme/topic/issue. There is an assured use of strategies, elements and medium and a creative and collaborative involvement in all practical tasks which are committed and focused. Communication of ideas demonstrates an excellent creative and imaginative facility that benefits the student’s work and has some effect on the work of others.

The teacher has to decide whether a piece of work is ‘outstanding’ or ‘excellent’. In the Oxford English Dictionary the word outstanding is defined as: Exceptionally good and the first synonym mentioned is: Excellent. In the same publication ‘excellent’ is defined as: ‘Extremely good; outstanding’ with the first three synonyms being: very good, superb, outstanding…  It is clear that these adjectives are extraordinarily difficult to pin down in anything like an objective way.

The teacher also has to work out the following differences: ‘In depth’ means ‘comprehensive and thorough’ whereas ‘assured’ means ‘confident’. The creative and imaginative facility that: ‘clearly benefits’ the student seems to be therapeutic whereas the excellent creative and imaginative facility benefits the student’s work. Bear in mind the teacher is looking for this at the same time as teaching a class of, maybe, thirty children… Can the teacher be assured, comprehensive and thorough, and be confident in her in-depth assessments?

Does the written work marking shed any light?

Documentary response

17-20

There is an outstanding evaluation of the student’s understanding of the explored theme, topic or issue. The use of strategies and medium shows an outstanding knowledge of how they contribute to the creation of dramatic form. There is an outstanding response to the work of others demonstrating a highly perceptive appreciation of the collaborative involvement required.

13-16

There is an excellent evaluation of the student’s understanding of the explored theme, topic or issue. The use of strategies and medium shows an excellent knowledge of how they contribute to the creation of dramatic form. There is an excellent response to the work of others demonstrating a considerable appreciation of the collaborative involvement required.

The range of marks then for the written again comes down to the teacher’s understanding of the difference between ‘excellent’ and ‘outstanding’ and then some idea of where the line between ‘highly perceptive’ and ‘considerable’ is drawn especially as this reflects a pupil’s ‘appreciation’ which is, in itself, highly subjective a term and very difficult to judge.

Unit two is not much help either:

Unit two:

Practical Exploration:

25-30

Student’s practical exploration shows an outstanding understanding of the text. There is a fluent use of strategies, elements and medium and a creative and collaborative involvement in all practical tasks which are committed and focused. Communication of ideas shows an outstanding knowledge and understanding of plot, character, form and structure.

19-24

Student’s practical exploration and understanding of text is excellent showing imaginative use of strategies, elements and medium and sustained, collaborative involvement in all practical tasks. Communication reveals an excellent knowledge and understanding of plot, character, form and structure effectively in all practical activities.

Again we have the problems of where to draw the line between excellent and outstanding. Then we have the difficulty in deciding what is fluent and what is imaginative. Is imaginative one step below fluent? Your child is very fluent in drama or your child is very imaginative in drama… personally i’d prefer to hear the latter. ‘Sustained’  now rears its head as being lesser than ‘committed  and focused’ whilst ‘all practical tasks’ is preferred to ‘all practical activities’. ‘Showing’ is also better than ‘revealing’…

The written evidence continues in much the same way:

Documentary Evidence:

9-10

Students’ analysis and evaluation of their own work and that of others is outstanding. They show considerable understanding and appreciation of the way the medium and elements of drama are used to interpret a play.

7-8

Students’ analysis and evaluation of their own work and that of others is excellent. They show clear understanding and appreciation of the way the medium and elements of drama are used to interpret a play.

‘Clear’ means: ‘Leaving no doubt; obvious or unambiguous’ I wonder if that could be said of this exam? If a child leaves you in no doubt that they understand and appreciate the work is that not the same as ‘having considerable’ understanding?

As for the Exam itself here is the assessment criteria by which the teacher tries to guide a pupil towards achieving top marks:

EXAM:

Voice and Gesture:

17-20

Vocal skills demonstrate an outstanding use of pace, pitch, pause and tone. Movement demonstrates an outstanding use of gesture, stillness, fluency and expression.

13-16

Vocal skills demonstrate an excellent use of pace, pitch, pause and tone. Movement demonstrates an excellent use of gesture, stillness, fluency and expression.

Roles and Characterisation:

17-20

There is an outstanding demonstration of the creation of role/character showing complete commitment and imagination.

13-16

There is an excellent demonstration of the creation of role/ character showing significant commitment and imagination.

Communication:

17-20

There is outstanding communication with other performers, audience members and the visiting examiner. The sense of rapport with all members of the ensemble is outstanding.

13-16

There is excellent communication with other performers, audience members and the visiting examiner. The sense of rapport with all members of the ensemble is excellent.

Content, Style and form:

17-20

There is outstanding control over the appreciation of the chosen style and form. There is an outstanding understanding of the content of the performance.

13-16

There is excellent control over the appreciation of the chosen style and form. There is an excellent understanding of the content of the performance.

Apart from knowing the difference between the words ‘complete’ and ‘significant’ the teacher has to guide her pupils by trying to discern the difference between outstanding and excellent. And the pupils have to know too…

The examination is assessed by one person with his own ideas as to what is excellent and what is outstanding and with his own biases and tastes…

Can an Arts exam be objective? Surely they can be a bit less subjective than this?

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Practise Teaching, Teaching Practice: Testing Times

“Practise Teaching, Teaching Practice” is a series of tips and observations about fundamentals for great teaching based on my experience as a teacher for over twenty years and also as a trainer of teachers for much of that time.


 

Too many exams make Jack and Jill very dull. Examined to within an inch of their lives the joy is taken out of learning. However, if Jack and Jill have their minds sparked with interesting thoughts and ideas they will be far from dull. What to do? As the famous old saying goes: ‘Weighing the pig doesn’t make it any fatter…’ No, maybe not, the weighing doesn’t help on its own but who does that? I can’t imagine any pig farmer weighing a pig and not feeding it, in fact the likelihood is that the farmer would adjust the pig’s feeding based on the information provided by the scales. The one thing that wouldn’t do much good is to weigh the pig once every year and put a lot of pressure on said pig a few weeks before the weighing was to take place that if it didn’t reach the required weight its future would be… well, this is where the analogy breaks down because fattening the pig is clearly to turn it into chops. Whereas fattening a child with knowledge is feeding their mind with useful and interesting thoughts and ideas. One would hope so anyway. 

Oh well, after being lost in the world of analogy, back to the world of the classroom. Should we test children? Yes. The question to ask though is ‘why should we test children’? The answer should be: ‘to help them learn’. If this is our focus then all can share in the joy of testing! Instead of focusing on high stakes exams, mock exams and end of term high stakes ‘tests’ how about testing a little, more often? Some teachers even dismiss the word test and replace it with the more user friendly title of ‘quiz’. Anything to make children feel less threatened. I don’t think it matters whether you call it a test or a quiz, I do think it matters that you share with the children the purpose of the test. The test should be there to help them memorise important knowledge in the subject area. If they know the test is there to help them memorise through the process of trying to retrieve knowledge then they will worry less about getting the highest score. If you make it clear you are not going to expose their scores to everyone else in the class or run a league table, all you will do with the information is adjust your teaching accordingly and, maybe, where necessary, have short small group or individual tutorials where problems arise to help explain areas that are causing confusion then so much the better.

I would recommend more testing, in fact a test every lesson consisting of ten short answer questions. This could make an ideal ‘starter’ activity for a lesson. The first three questions could focus on material from the previous lesson. The next two questions could be from the two weeks before. Questions six and seven could be drawn from what was studied 5 weeks ago whilst questions eight and nine could be taken from the previous half term, term, or even before. Question ten could be about making a connection with what they are currently looking at with something previously studied, which will help serve as an introduction to the lesson. Questions could be informed by the need to revisit previous areas of difficulty but should also have some ‘easy’ questions that you know are pretty much understood. The knowledge you want them to retain might be informed by the exam and by things that you think are also important for whole subject understanding. Whatever you are testing it is the frequency of having to recall knowledge and also having to reach back in their minds for half forgotten knowledge that will help your students memorise important material.

You could also add the mysterious blank ‘question 11’ where they could write about any area they are having difficulty with or perhaps devise their own question for future tests.

How about marking? You should be able to glance over the answers reasonably quickly to get a handle on who is doing okay and who might need help. However, if you’d prefer, at the end of the lesson, distribute answers from the week before and go over the answers getting the pupils to mark their own (or each other’s) work, correcting mistakes if there are any. This will also help them retain knowledge. It doesn’t even matter if they cheat, because by cheating they will be acknowledging  the ‘right’ answer.

Although only a small part of what a teacher does, testing can help children learn.

Once you have fattened your class by feeding them tiny morsels and weighing them often, they will be suitably fattened with knowledge in order to go to slaughter…

I really need to work on this analogy…

Schooling via the Trivium? Jony Ive

An occasional look at how aspects of the trivium* may have contributed to the education of various people in various walks of life. What follows is highly selective, the material on which it is based will be open to a wide variety of interpretations and mine might be highly ‘trivial’.

*I am using the trivium 21c interpretation of the trivium


 I’ve (geddit?) been reading the book : ‘Jony Ive, The Genius Behind Apple’s Greatest Products‘ by Leander Kahney a book I’d recommend to anyone interested in design, apple or, indeed, education. In the first chapter Kahney writes about Ive’s school days and the influence of his background that I found to be very interesting.

Ive was born in Chingford, North East London in 1967. He spent his formative years there before moving, at the age of eleven, to Stafford in the West Midlands. His dad was a silversmith and his mum a psychotherapist. Straightaway I feel compelled to jump to conclusions about his Apple designs, how they are beautifully crafted and emotionally intelligent but I won’t as that would be too easy after all if we were all such simple chips off the old block then what would we all be like?

I think his father’s influence was crucial. From an early age little Jony would have been exposed to design knowledge or, as I would call it, ‘The grammar of design technology.’ Not only was his father a silversmith, he was also a teacher who rose to become a highly influential HMI specialising in the field of design and technology. It was Mike Ive who saw to it that D&T became part of the core curriculum and moved it from being a ‘low status’ subject to an ‘integrated course that mixed academic study with making things’. Through his dad Jony was able to connect to a world not just of design but also academe. Mike and Jony Ive would discuss design that they would come across in their day to day environment. Not only would they discuss what they saw but they were also thinking about how it could be made better. Here the ‘grammar’ of design would meet the challenge of ‘dialectic’ through gentle exploration, questioning and challenging what they came across.

Jony took part in a variety of activities, he was a drummer in a band, and had a state education typical of people of his age. As an annual Christmas treat his dad let him into his workshop one day every year in which he was allowed to do anything he wanted and his dad would be on hand to support him, helping him put his ideas into action. Mike Ive would insist on one constraint: everything had to be drawn by hand first. This constraint Jony Ive believed helped him develop a hatred of carelessness in a product. Mike Ive took Jony on trips to design schools and studios and by the time he was 13 Jony knew he wanted to ‘draw and make stuff’.

Mike’s influence on his son’s approach to design may have been crucial. As an HMI Mike Ive encouraged teachers to develop a creative process that used ‘drawing and sketching, talking and discussing’ as crucial elements. He also talked about how teachers and designers should not ‘know it all’ and should encourage risk taking in the creative process. In order to communicate to pupils he asked that teachers told ‘the design story’ or as I would call it ‘the rhetoric of design’.

At school Jony got 3 A’s at A level. In the D&T A level the first year was looking at the ‘character and capabilities’ of a range of materials, developing ideas and practical skills and the second year, more academic, centred on a project. From this description we have a ‘trivium’ approach: The grammar of design, knowledge and skills, dialectic of development, and the rhetoric expressed through a project.

Jony’s teachers talk about how good his work was, extolling the quality and sophistication of his drawing and also his exceptional ability to communicate his ideas. He left school clutching his qualifications and went on to study product design at Newcastle Polytechnic. At the Poly students were taught how to ‘think like a designer’, learning practical skills and attending academic classes with a focus on design psychology. The focus was on ‘detail, manufacture and craftsmanship.’ The tradition this approach draws on is one that is based on the German Bauhaus of the 1920s. Crucially this approach has a minimalist principle: ‘designers should only design what is needed.’ From this tradition came the company Braun a company that influenced Jony Ive’s designs for Apple.

At Newcastle the ‘T’ shape in their approach to teaching was important: the I of the T representing depth in one area and the _ representing breadth in a variety of arts and design students were encouraged to mix with others studying other disciplines. Instead of learning how to be an employee Ive’s would learn how to ‘pursue his passion’ and work within teams.

When he came across his first Apple product he felt a connection to it he felt the ‘humanity’ of the product saying: ‘There was a real sense of the people who made it’. After more research he found Apple more appealing as it was a ‘cheeky, almost rebellious company… it had a reason for being that wasn’t just about making money’.

Interestingly, whilst at Newcastle, Jony designed a phone, for a competition organised by the RSA, which he named ‘The Orator’. This seems wonderfully trivial. 😉

There are so many little insights into Ive’s design life in this book. To my mind, clearly with a big dollop of confirmation bias to the fore, it shows that an education focussing on the three ways of the trivium: grammar, dialectic and rhetoric can only be a good thing!

Practise Teaching, Teaching Practice: Speak Up!

“Practise Teaching, Teaching Practice” is a series of tips and observations about fundamentals for great teaching based on my experience as a teacher for over twenty years and also as a trainer of teachers for much of that time.


The voice is one of the most important parts of a teacher’s armoury and yet, foolishly, teacher training and CPD tend to take it for granted. If you’re lucky you might get an after school session dedicated to it but that’s about all. I think schools should run specialised voice sessions at least twice a week, every week and also ensure that staff have regular check ups. Why? Because teachers use their voice every day, for a lot of the day, and at a volume that would fill a small theatre. Actors train their voices so should teachers. I expect an actor uses their voice less than a teacher yet knows how to look after it more.

I have delivered CPD for teachers on use of voice for over twenty years and it’s something that can help teachers new and old. If you aren’t getting regular voice training, one short cut is to join a choir or have singing lessons, although the techniques are slightly different, the protection and practice offered for your voice might be a good idea.

Voice Projection and Protection:

There are various simple techniques to ensure you look after your voice and, usefully, if you use these techniques you will not only care for your voice you will also make yourself heard better and also be more interesting to listen to.

Speak Up: Don’t Slouch and Don’t Shout

A good posture is essential, your voice comes from within, it isn’t a bolt on extra somewhere in your mouth. In order to speak well, you need to stand, or sit, well. Then you need to breathe well. When working with teachers I ask them to breathe deeply and it is extraordinary to see how many think taking a deep breath involves chest out and shoulders up. It doesn’t. Diaphragm darling, diaphragm! In one session I worked with a teacher getting her to breathe deeply and she immediately farted, much to her embarrassment and a fit of giggles for everyone else. But this was good, she was breathing deeply! If you need to raise your voice you need to take in a good amount of air and then use this air to pass through your vocal cords as you shape your mouth clearly (to some this might feel exaggerated) to accommodate the words you wish to say.

Pace, Pitch and Pause

It is good to vary the pace of what you are saying as this can help interest, punctuate what you are saying with pauses for effect, to allow you to take a breath, to rest, and to allow pupils to take stock. Varying pitch can also help create interest and it can be a great discipline tool, particularly for female teachers. I remember one Media Studies Teacher coming up to me after one of my sessions saying she used my ‘pitch’ technique and it completely silenced her class. She had been having trouble with her class because when they were doing group work they would get rather noisy and when she wanted them to listen to her she would shout some instructions and they wouldn’t react. After she used the pitch technique her pupils immediately fell silent and one of them put up his hand and said: “Miss, you’ve got a new voice!” If a class is getting noisy, they tend to also get higher pitched. If a teacher then shouts (which you should never do) the pitch, particularly if the teacher is female, is likely to be at the same level as the rest of the class rendering the teacher very difficult to hear well. If, however, you take a breath, project properly and lower your pitch, (think Vanessa Redgrave, darling), your new, fruity, voice will be heard straight away as it will be at a lower pitch to the general hubbub. You will be heard and you will be obeyed! 😉

There are many other techniques that can help you be heard, remember: project and protect! Seek out voice training, preferably as part of a wider look at good communication strategies such as use of gesture or even rhetoric. Here is a blog I wrote about Rhetoric and storytelling. I also run courses on voice training and communication, if anyone is interested in these please contact me here.

Practise Teaching, Teaching Practice: Ritual

“Practise Teaching, Teaching Practice” is a series of tips and observations about fundamentals for great teaching based on my experience as a teacher for over twenty years and also as a trainer of teachers for much of that time.


 

Whether the atmosphere you create in your classroom is like that of a church where children worship at the altar of knowledge or nearer to that of a high powered office where children come to work efficiently on administrative tasks, the ritual of the classroom is something that is unique to your teaching and the children’s experience of studying with you.

Every teacher will have distinct rituals in her teaching areas whether she is aware of them or not. It is a good idea to work out what the rituals are going to be in your classroom to ensure it fits into the whole school ethos as well as having an atmosphere all of its own. There are four things to consider: what are the rituals that the school wishes me to use? What are the rituals that the subject demands? What are the rituals that will suit the children? (Little factors like what day of the week and time it is can make a difference to how they come in, what subject have they been to just before and with whom have they been studying? Have they just come back from break?) And what are the rituals that I want to impose? This will reflect your own philosophy towards the teaching and learning of your subject within the context of the wider culture of the school. A good way to think about what rituals you should adopt is to think about the overall atmosphere that you might want to create for your classroom. Here are some ideas for ‘atmospheres’, you might wish to add your own…:

An Office, A Church, A Studio, A Lab, A Monastery/Convent Belonging a Silent Order, A Workshop, A Theatre, A Circus, A Kitchen, A Restaurant, A University, A Place of Enquiry, A Museum, A Factory, A Gym or even a Chashitsu…

Once you have a picture of the sort of atmosphere you want to create you can go about creating something akin to it:

Do your children queue outside the classroom as if they are about to enter a theatre or, even, a circus or do they enter in their own time like into an office? Where do they put their coats and bags? What equipment, books and other paraphernalia are they expected to have with them? These are all considerations that help create the rituals at the heart of your unique classroom culture.

Other parts of the lesson also involve ritual: how do pupils move around the class, do they ask permission? Do they walk where and when they want to? Do they put their hands up to ask questions? Is silence the default mode for working? These things might be task dependant but are important to consider.Do you have a seating plan? (Personally I wouldn’t, I abhor the things, I much prefer to have children sit in different places, next to different people, at different times and always at my behest, which can be a pain when you are first trying to remember names.) How do pupils get paper or other equipment? How do they treat each other? How do you address them, how do they address you and how do they address each other? Do they stand when adults come into the room and fall silent? Do they ask to go to toilet, just leave, or do you expect them to have gone beforehand? Are they allowed to drink in class and, if so, what? What is your policy on sweets and chewing gum? (Mine is always none allowed). How about mobile phones? If they haven’t got the right equipment do you provide them with replacements etc? Do you have punishment/reward systems that you might use, if so, how often?

How formal/informal is your relationship with pupils? Where are you on the ‘normal’/’eccentric’ continuum? Do you have catchphrases, what are they? (Catchphrases can be really useful to focus attention on important parts of pupils’ learning as well as keeping them on task.) How do you ensure all take part? Do you differentiate, if so, why and how? How do you conduct class discussion? How do you recognise moments of real breakthrough? How do you deal with moments of real frustration and difficulty? How approachable are you? (Too approachable then you can become a prop, too distant and they might fear approaching you when there are real difficulties).

All these things and others are, of course, in the context of the school but how you approach them will be part of the unique atmosphere of your classroom. Work out your rituals before you find them becoming an accidental part of your practise.

What Every English Person Needs To Know

In his 1988 book “Cultural Literacy, What Every American Needs To Know” E.D. Hirsch Jr. wrote that: “To be truly literate citizens must be able to grasp the meaning of any piece of writing addressed to the general reader.” He went on to say that all citizens should be able to read: “Newspapers of substance.” To Hirsch this didn’t just mean that they could read the words, it meant that they must also understand the significance of what is being said, he called this understanding: ‘cultural literacy’. At the back of the book he wrote an extensive list that he believed represented what an American should know. The list includes: Woody Allen, Fred Astaire, Chuck Berry, Brer Rabbit, Catch 22, ‘Come live with me and be my love’, Iago, In Situ, Washington Irving, Carl Jung, Prostate Gland, Leon Trotsky, Uranus, V-J Day, Yellow Peril, and Emile Zola.

For a bit of fun I thought I would make a similar list based on a ‘Newspaper of Substance’, today’s issue of the Times, and make a ‘culturally significant’ list that might form the basis of a curriculum based on the idea of ‘What Every English Person Needs To Know’:

Gaza

Kidnapped

Nato

Cameron

Putin

Border watchdog

Tank Regiment

Tattoo

Social Climbing

Dame Helen Mirren

Teasmaid

Cheryl Cole

Poison

Older Women Make Better Mothers

Pensioner

Islam

Dr Rowan Williams

Koran

Sex Grooming

Sexual Abuse

Independent School

George V

British Airways

Drink Driving

ISIS

Honda Accord

Skills Gap

Volatile GCSE Results

Ofqual

Simon Cowell

Anxiety

Drug Use

Sexuality

Alcohol

Hastings

Danny Alexander

Kirstie Allsop

Lucy Powell

Lib Dem

Coalition

Think Tank

Gordon Brown

David Cameron

Ed Miliband

David Miliband

Labour

Manchester

Throwback to the 1950s

It’s a Long Way to Tipperary

Rapist

Blacklisted

Explicitly Sexual Poses

Touched Her Intimately

Bale Out

Cambridge

Cattle Farmer

Croatia

BMW

Barking

Albania

Germany

Teenagers

Comprehensive School

Volleyball

Football

Drug Overdose

Birmingham

Party Drug PMA

Paramedic

Class A Amphetamine

Maisonette

Comedy

Labradoodle

William Shakespeare

Tom Stoppard

Tunic

Sherlock

Covent Garden

Ecstasy

Dealer

Hearing

Half a Gram

Three Heart Attacks

Unconscious

Crown Prosecution Service

Metropolitan Police/The Met

Jean Charles de Menezes

Public Enquiry

Murder

Health and Safety

Camp Bestival

Acrobat

Eight Round Burst

RNLI

Grade ll Listed

George Osbourne

Eastbourne

Open For Business

Pier

The Dorchester

Minimum Spend

The Langham

The Ritz

Prince Harry

Duke and Duchess of Cambridge

Kate Moss

Rihanna

Naomi Campbell

Bowel Cancer

Curry

Small Nuclear Receptor

Protein

Obesity

Obstetrics

Gynaecology

Reproductive Sciences

Blogger

Nigella

Mice

Rolf Harris

Circuit Judge

Acid

Bullying

Intimidating

Christian Funeral

Tumour

Sensory Neurons

Southwark Crown Court

Penthouse Flat

Sierra Leone

Ebola

Commonwealth Games

Olympics

Scotland Yard

Virus

Resuscitate

Inquest

Athlete

Table Tennis

On The Run

West Africa

Paul Smith

Chanel

PJs

Elasticated Waists

Autumn

Tour de France

Hobbit

Liberal

Majority

Intervention

Liberal Democratic Values

Libya

Tripoli

Embassy

Ambassador

French Diplomats

Ted Hughes

Sylvia Plath

Gaddafi

Tunisia

Italians

Militias

US

Commons

United Nations

Up The Ante

Daily Mail

The Observer

Hansard

Civil Order

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Failed Pariah State

Foreign Secretary

Overseas Bases

Nicolas Sarkozy

Arab Spring

Mr Obama

Vacillator

Snooker

Old Vic

Rupert Murdoch

Tony Blair

Prince Philip

Queen Elizabeth

Toasted Teacakes

Reverence

Terrace

Global Banking System

Casual Racism

Nigel Farage

Aristophanes

Three Sisters

Ionesco’s The Chairs

Box Room

Sheffield

Mother Courage and Her Children

Arthur Miller

The Merry Wives of Windsor

Clones

Send in the Clowns

Chicago

Shanghai

Canary Wharf

Lapland

Plover

Philharmonic

Council

Hamlet

Prostitute

Istanbul

Symphony

Orchestra

Aural

Uniformity

Homogenised

YouTube

Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring

Manila

Moscow

Disco-Dance

Proms

National Park

Vandalism

Silence is Golden

Carruthers

Great War

Wart

Ramblers

Banksy

Ed Balls

Usain Bolt

Orlando Bloom

LGA

Black Cab

Boris Johnson

Tax Avoidance

Ceasefire

Death Toll

Boutique Hotel

Tea Party

Greenpeace

Cocaine

Anti-Gay

al-Quaeda

Divorce

Tamzin Outhwaite

Quickies

Porn

Ubiquitous

Penetrative Sex

Arousal

Masturbation

Sexual Repertoire

Orgasm

Curvaceousness

Anchovies

Marinade

Burrata

Succulents

Aeonium

Bionics

Dame Edna

iPhone

App

Balkans

Panama Canal

Mayan Ruins

Verona

Juliet

Nook and Cranny

Game of Thrones

Ely

Phuket

Butlins

Kandyan Dancing

Taiwan

WHO

North Korea

Portly Despot

Disneyland

Berlusconi

Underage Sex

Bandits

Austerity

Nobel Prize

Catalan

Fido

William Hill

Sir Francis Drake

Van Gaal

Anfield

Financial Fair Play

QPR

Try

Ecclestone

Piccadilly Circus

Woking

Thirsk

Trent Bridge

BA

BT

Fed

Turbulence

BSkyB

I’m a Celebrity

RBS

Inflation

CEBR

Bank of England Base Rate

Britishness

Blenheim Palace

Wall Street

Google

Smartphone

Autonomous Cars

Chips

VIP Lifestyle

Stocks

Property Investment

Scammed

Strong Pale Ale

Five Star Lifestyle

Capital Gains

Solid Performers

Cotton Chinos

Moleskins

Panama Style Hat

Low Pressure

Light Southerly

Obituary

Subjunctive

Hypothetical

Churchill

Biggles

Dog Collars

Richard lll

National Lobster Hatchery

The Duke of York

Fritz Lang

And this is only the beginning….